How the world’s biggest brain maps could transform neuroscience
Scientists around the world are working together to catalogue and map cells in the brain. What have these huge projects revealed about how it works?

Digital Reconstruction of Neocortical Microcircuitry
Visualizations of the first square millimeter of simulated rat brain


Neural Plasticity Depends On This Long Noncoding RNA’s Journey From Nucleus to Synapse
Study sheds new light on the role noncoded RNAs play at the synapse

How Neural Systems Process and Store Information
A single neuron is able to select between different patterns, dependent upon the properties of individual stimuli

Genetic Predisposition to Schizophrenia May Increase Risk of Psychosis From Cannabis Use
While cannabis users reported more psychotic experiences than non-users generally, the effect was more pronounced in those with a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia

The Neural Basis of Psychopathy
Neuroimaging study reveals structural and functional differences in brain areas associated with emotional regulation in those with personality traits linked to psychopathy or antisocial personality disorder

How Spanking May Affect Brain Development in Children
Corporal punishment may detrimentally harm brain development, a new study reports

Study Showing How the Brain Retrieves Facts and May Help People With Memory Problems
A shared set of brain regions play a vital role in the retrieval of weak memories

Autism Gene Study Finds Widespread Impact to Brain’s Growth Signaling Network
Mutations in the autism-related Dyrk1a gene lead to brain undergrowth in mice

Chronic Sinus Inflammation Appears to Alter Brain Activity
Researchers link the inflammation associated with chronic sinus infections to alterations in brain activity in networks that govern cognition, external stimuli, and introspection

A Blood Test For Depression and Bipolar Disorder
A new blood test can distinguish the severity of a person’s depression and their risk for developing severe depression at a later point

Key Brain Molecule May Play Role in Many Brain Disorders
miRNA29 is a key cellular switch in controlling late-stage brain development

Leptin Puts the Brakes on Eating via Novel Neurocircuit
Researchers have identified novel neurocircuitry between midbrain structures which are modulated by leptin to control eating behaviors in mice

Study Links Prenatal Phthalate Exposure to Altered Information Processing in Infants
Fetal exposure to phthalates alters cognitive processing in young children, a new study reports. Children whose mothers were exposed to higher levels of phthalates during pregnancy exhibited slower information processing skills. Male children were most likely to experience difficulties

Outside Factors May Help Children Develop Internal Control
A new theory proposes executive function, or the ability to control your behavior, might not exist just within the mind. External influences may dictate the development of internal control

New Blueprint of Brain Connections Reveals Extensive Reach of Central Regulator
A new map of the basal ganglia provides a blueprint of the structure of the brain region and reveals a new level of influence connected to this area

Vitamins for Your Neurons
All-trans retinoic acid, a vitamin A derivative, induces synaptic plasticity in human cortical neurons

‘Zombie’ Genes? Some Genes Come to Life in the Brain After Death
In the hours after death, some cells in the human brain not only remain active, they grow in size

Neuroscience Basics
IHNA starts the theoretical course

event 12.12.2020

XXIII scientific school-conference of young scientists on the physiology of higher nervous activity and neurophysiology

A centerpiece of the 3-D human brain atlas published
Human Brain Project

Brain Thickness and Connectivity, Not Just Location, Correlates With Behavior
Cortical thickness and regional brain connectivity pay an equally important role in linking brain and behavior

Why the Brain Never Processes the Same Input in the Same Way
Depending on the network state, certain neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex can be more or less excitable, which shapes stimulus processing in the brain

Scientists Observe Learning Processes Online in the Brain
Repeatedly administered tactile simulation over a sustained period of time alters neural processing of the hand area in the brain. The observable changes over time illustrate neuroplasticity and shed new light on the process of learning

Discovery of “Thought Worms” Opens Window to the Mind
Researchers have discovered a brain-based marker for new thoughts, reporting people experience more than 6,000 thoughts per day. The study reports a new method that can detect indirectly when one thought ends and another begins

Is What I See, What I Imagine? The Neural Overlap Between Vision and Imagination
Using artificial intelligence and neuroimaging, researchers have identified a link between mental imagery and vision. The brain uses similar visual areas for mental imagery and vision but uses low-level visual areas less precisely for mental imagery than vision

Brain ‘Signature’ Could Help to Diagnose Schizophrenia
An EEG study reveals people with schizophrenia and their siblings without the disorder share patterns of brain activity that are different from people with no familial history of schizophrenia

Brain Structural Elements in Psychiatric Disorders
Comparing data from multiple neuroimaging studies, researchers found shared brain structural abnormalities between four psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They also identified brain signatures unique to each condition

New imaging method tracks brain’s elusive networks
A new system for high-density EEG helps with the imaging of the origin and path of both normal and abnormal neural activity

Neuroscientists Think They've Found a Previously Unknown Form of Neural Communication
Scientists think they've identified a previously unknown form of neural communication that self-propagates across brain tissue, and can leap wirelessly from neurons in one section of brain tissue to another – even if they've been surgically severed

Dynamic stimulation of the visual cortex allows blind and sighted people to ‘see’ shapes
A visual cortical prosthesis can restore sight by bypassing damage to the eyes and delivering visual information retrieved from a camera directly to the brain

Significant differences exist among neurons expressing dopamine receptors
Dopamine receptors have different molecular features and functions depending on their anatomical location within the striatum

How strong is your mental imagery? It might depend on how ‘excitable’ your neurons are
Highly excitable neurons in the visual cortex may reduce a person’s ability to imagine mental images

High density EEG produces dynamic image of brain signal source
Researchers combine machine learning, EEG, and new functional imaging technology to dynamically map a neural signal’s source and underlying brain networks

Origins of human language pathway in the brain at least 25 million years old
Studying auditory regions and brain pathways in humans, apes, and monkeys, researchers have identified a language pathway that interconnects the auditory cortex with frontal lobe regions

A gut-to-brain circuit drives sugar preference and may explain sugar cravings
In the intestines, signals of sugar ingestion travel to the brain, sparking an appetite for more sweet foods

Advanced, high-res MRI scans reveal link between cognitive abilities and ‘tree ring’ layers in the brain
Object and facial recognition abilities are associated with the same brain area but are characterized by different depths of cortical layers, which form at the age each ability was acquired.

NIH BRAIN Initiative tool helps researchers watch neural activity in 3D
SCAPE microscopy, a new 3D imaging technique, allows a greater volume of brain tissue to be viewed in a much less damaging way to networks of living cells

The brain dictionary
Scientists have created an interactive map showing which brain areas respond to hearing different words

This is a 100 micron resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of an ex vivo human brain specimen

Home Featured Rhythmic control of ‘brain waves’ can boost memory
Memory performance can be enhanced by rhythmic neural stimulation, using both invasive and non-invasive techniques

The scientific case for brain simulations
Researchers report a need for open, general purpose simulation engines that can run different models of the brain at different levels of biological detail

Neuroimaging reveals a significantly diminished response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in children on the autism spectrum

Specific angles and sharpness of brain waves seen in unfiltered raw data from scalp electroencephalograms have been tied to Parkinson’s disease (University of Oregon)

Functional connectivity problems associated with temporal lobe epilepsy appear to improve after surgery

Studying brain tissue samples from people with ASD revealed a common set of alterations in genes associated with synaptic communication between neurons

Researchers present a new model that may explain the flexibility of working memory

A BK channel–mediated feedback pathway links single-synapse activity with action potential sharpening in repetitive firing
A novel short-term presynaptic plasticity mechanism

Analysis of shared heritability in common disorders of the brain
Brain disorders may exhibit shared symptoms and substantial epidemiological comorbidity, inciting debate about their etiologic overlap

MEG-BIDS, the brain imaging data structure extended to magnetoencephalography
The Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) is an emerging standard for the organisation of neuroimaging data

Role Schizophrenia Genes Play in Brain Development Discovered
A new USC study reports researchers have discovered 150 proteins that affect brain development and cell activity, contributing to the development of mental health disorders

The Making of a Brain
A new study provides novel insight into the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex

Waves Move Across the Human Brain to Support Memory
Alpha and theta oscillations move rhythmically across the brain, reflecting neural activity propagating across the cortex to help form working memory

Maps Made of Nerve Cells
The new model explains how neural activity in the hippocampus can help map space, time and context in episodic memories

Protein Pair Quickly Makes Memories of New Places
A new study reveals how neurogranin and FMRP help encode memories of new places

Brain Area Involved in Understanding Social Interactions Identified
Researchers implicate the posterior superior temporal sulcus in our ability to process social interactions efficiently

Myelin Continues to Grow Throughout Life
Researchers report myelin continues to form and restructure in the adult brain

Democratizing Science: Researchers Make Neuroscience Experiments Easier to Share and Reproduce
Researchers have developed an open access browser that allows display, sharing and analysis of MRI data.

Making New Memories is a Balancing Act
According to researchers, some synapses get smaller as we learn new information

Brain Connections in Schizophrenia
Researchers report reduced connectivity between the thalamus and prefrontal cortex may be a common feature in those with Schizophrenia

Memories Can Be Decoded from Brain Waves During Sleep
Sleep spindles assist with the processing of relevant memories during sleep and help boost memory consolidation

Brain Activity at Rest Provides Clue to Intelligence
A new study reports our level of brain activity while at rest is linked to our ability to perform well in cognitive tests

Researchers Find Algorithm for Large Scale Brain Simulations
Researchers have developed a new algorithm which can speed up brain simulations on supercomputers

Birth of New Neurons in the Human Hippocampus Ends in Childhood
Although observed in other species, researchers report hippocampal neurogenesis does not persist through adult life in humans. Researchers say human hippocampal neurogenesis is not detectable in the adult brain

Diversity of Cortical Neurons Captured in Comprehensive Computer Model
Allen Institute researchers have produced a collection of computer generated models that accurately replicate cortical neuron activity

What Happens in the Brain During Unconsciousness?
Researchers investigate how brain networks fragment while under a variety of unconscious states ?

Genetics Study Closes in on Schizophrenia
Researchers have identified 50 new gene regions they say increase the risk of developing schizophrenia

Seeing the Brain’s Electrical Activity
A new optogenetics approach allows the imaging of neurotransmission without the use of electrode

New Insights On the Neurobiology of Dying
A new study sheds light on the neurobiological processes that occur when we die

Brain Signal that Indicates Whether Speech Has Been Understood Discovered
Using EEG technology, researchers have discovered a specific brain signal that helps us to understand what we hear in conversation

How the Brain Tells Our Limbs Apart
Researchers have identified contrasts in interneurons that govern motor control

Schizophrenia is a Side Effect of Human Development
Researchers have identified altered gene expression in the prefrontal area of the brain in those with schizophrenia. The study reports schizophrenia may have evolved as ‘side effect’ of human brain development

Movie Memento Uncovers How the Brain Remembers and Interprets Events From Clues
Using the movie Memento, researchers discover how the brain creates memories to piece together complex storylines

When it Comes to Our Brains, There’s No Such Thing as Normal
When it comes to the brain, there is “no fixed normal”, researchers say

Electrical Implant Reduces ‘Invisible’ Symptoms of Man’s Spinal Cord Injury
Epidural stimulation has helped improve some of the ‘hidden’ effects, such as abnormal blood pressure and bladder dysfunction, in a patient with spinal cord injury

Newborn Babies Who Suffered Stroke Regain Language Function in Opposite Side of Brain
According to researchers, following a perinatal stroke that damages the language area in the left hemisphere, the brain remaps to use the right hemisphere for language

Pioneering Technique Helps People with Schizophrenia Control Brain Activity
Researchers have developed a new technique that could allow those with schizophrenia, who do not respond to medications, to control verbal hallucinations

Love and Fear Are Visible Across the Brain, Not Restricted to One Region
A new study reports basic emotions, such as happiness and anger, are not limited to specific regions, but have distinct connectivity patterns that encompass much of the brain

Birds and Primates Share Brain Cell Types Linked to Intelligence
Researchers reveal that, while the anatomical structures of bird, reptile and mammalian brains differ, all contain certain types of cells linked to cognitive ability

How Your Brain Helps You Learn New Skills
A new study reveals how fast spiking interneurons improve the efficiency of learning a new skill

Shedding Light on Genetic Overlap Between Major Psychiatric Disorders
Researchers have identified a range of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, that share physical characteristics at the molecular level. Specifically, the study identifies common patterns of neural gene expression. In addition, researchers note important differences in gene expression that distinguish the disorders

How the Brain Constructs the World
Two new studies shed light on the processes that underlie the integration and storage of sensory information

A new study reveals a diverse array of genetic changes that occur in the brain following sensory experiences

The Molecular Mechanisms Behind Memory Formation
Researchers have identified a cellular pathway that encodes memories by strengthening specific neurons

Distinctive Brain Patterns Help Habits Form
MIT researchers have identified neurons that fire at the start and conclusion of a behavior as it becomes a habit

Full Length Serotonin Receptor Structure Seen For First Time
Researchers have been able to view the full length of serotonin receptors for the first time, with the help of Nobel prize winning microscope technology. The snapshot of the receptor includes details of molecular binding sites that could help with the development of a range of new drugs

Dim Light May Make Us Dumber
A new study reveals exposure to dim light might impact memory and learning. Researchers report rodents exposed to dim lighting lost 30 percent of hippocampal capacity and performed poorly on spatial tasks they had previously experienced

New Insights into Autism Spectrum Disorder
Researchers report exposure to a compound used to treat seizures and migraine can cause characteristics associated with autism

Epilepsy Linked to Brain Volume and Thickness Differences
UCL researchers report epilepsy is associated with gray matter differences in thickness and volume in several brain regions

The Creative Brain is Wired Differently
Synchrony between the default mode network and executive control network appear to play an important role in creativity, Harvard researchers report

Friends’ Genes May Help Others Stay in School
Stanford researchers report it’s not just your DNA that influences your educational achievement. The genetics of others in your social circle also influences how far you go in school

Nearly Imperceptible Fluctuations in Movement Correspond to Autism Diagnoses
Movement could be an accurate biomarker for the diagnosis of autism, researchers report

Researchers turn to neuroscience to help explain why some people are more creative than others

Blind in the Mind: Why Some People Can’t See Pictures in their Imagination
Researchers report on why some people experience aphantasia, the inability to imagine in images

Rare Form of ‘Thunder’ Protein May Be Linked to Schizophrenia
A new study has identified rare genetic variation in the Thorase protein that causes the breakdown of receptors at the connections between neurons in the brain. The anti-epilepsy drug perampanel can help reverse anti-social behaviors linked to schizophrenia that are associated with this genetic variation.

Layer-specific modulation of neocortical dendritic inhibition during active wakefulness
Specialized nerve cells, known as somatostatin-expressing (Sst) interneurons, in the outer part of the mammalian brain - play a key role in controlling how information flows in the brain

Ultrastructural evidence for synaptic scaling across the wake/sleep cycle
The axon-spine interface decreased ~18% after sleep compared with wake

Study Shows How Epilepsy Drugs Block Electrical Signals in the Brain
A new study reports computer simulations have helped to identify the drug’s binding site

The Rhythm That Makes Memories Permanent
Sharp wave ripples, brain waves important for memory consolidation, are influenced by synaptic inhibition.

‘Latest Spoke in the Wheel’ Drives Brain-Mapping Advances
A special section on “Super-resolution Microscopy of Neural Structure and Function” in the current issue of the journal Neurophotonics

New Mechanism of How Brain Networks Form Identified
Excitatory neurons sculpt and refine maps of the external world throughout development and experience, while inhibitory neurons form maps that become broader with maturation

The Last Frontier: The Molecular Basis of Brain Plasticity and How Neurons Learn
A new study proposes a new theory to how neurons learn

Further Evidence for Causal Link Between Schizophrenia and Cannabis
Schizophrenia risk may predict cannabis use, rather than the other way around

Mapping the Brain’s Aging Connections
Impact of ageing on brain connections mapped in major scan study

Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation Improves Cognitive Control
Applying transcranial direct current stimulation to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can help to improve cognitive control and may be a beneficial treatment for those with autism, schizophrenia and ADHD

Researchers Make an Autism Breakthrough
As many as a third of autism cases could be explained by a scarcity of a single protein in the brain

Teens Benefit From Later High School Start Times
Later high school start times are associated with reduced motor vehicle accidents and less daytime sleepiness for teens

Researchers Identify New Epilepsy Gene Network
Researchers have identified a network of 320 genes they believe to be associated with epilepsy

Neuromotor Problems At the Core of Autism
Researchers warn using psychotropic medications to treat autism could make neuromotor problems worse

Study Uncovers Details of Information Processing in the Brain
New research shows that, when focused, we process information continuously, rather in waves as previously thought

Illusion Reveals the Brain Fills in Peripheral Vision
What we see in the periphery, just outside the direct focus of the eye, may sometimes be a visual illusion

How the Hippocampus Influences Future Thinking
Researchers report the hippocampus isn’t just important for remembering past events, it also plays a vital role in future planning

Selective modulation of cortical state during spatial attention
Cortical states are controlled locally within a cortical map according to cognitive demands

Brain Connections Show More Symmetry Between Hemispheres in People With Autism
A new study identifies differences in brain connectivity in people with ASD compared to their typically developing peers

Researchers use fast fMRI to track the brain activity that occurs during thought

Brain Pattern Flexibility and Behavior
Researchers investigate how high level cognitive processing occurs by looking at how different brain regions are connected

3D embryo atlas reveals human development in unprecedented detail
Digital model will aid vital research, offering chance chance to explore intricate changes occurring in the first weeks of life

A computer program just ranked the most influential brain scientists of the modern era
1st Karl J. Friston, 2nd Raymond J. Dolan, 3rd Marcus E. Raichle

A dinosaur’s brain, preserved in a pebble
The first known evidence of fossilized brain tissue of a dinosaur

Big dreams emerge for big brain science projects
The United Nations of Brain Projects met nearby in unbounded enthusiasm for the idea that transnational cooperation will, at last, explain the brain

This protein designer aims to revolutionize medicines and materials
Baker’s team and collaborators report making cages that assemble themselves from as many as 120 designer proteins, which could open the door to a new generation of molecular machines

How Words Are Represented in the Brain
A new study sheds light on the neurobiology of reading.

Updated human brain map reveals nearly 100 new regions
The Human Connectome Project defined 180 distinct areas, including nearly 100 that have never been described before

Imaging synaptic density in the living human brain
Scientists developed a noninvasive approach to “see” human synapses by using an imaging agent that targets the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A).

Unlocking the Secrets of the Brain: Defining and Measuring Human Intelligence
Researchers have identified how different parts of the brain interact with each other at different times in order to discover how intellect works

Tau protein—not amyloid—may be key driver of Alzheimer’s symptoms
A new imaging study of 10 people with mild AD suggests that tau deposits—not amyloid—are closely linked to symptoms such as memory loss and dementia

How the Brain Switches to Memory Mode
Certain cells in the brain, the hippocampal astrocytes, ensure that the new information is given priority

Consciousness Harmed by Abnormal Brain Interactions
There are two networks related to the perception of either the external world or internal thoughts

Simpler Nervous Systems 2016
XI East European Conference of the International Society for Invertebrate Neurobiology 05.16-05.19.2016

Sleep deprivation impairs learning and memory
Sleep deprivation impairs memory by attenuating mTORC1-dependent protein synthesis

Newborn neurons keep memories crisp and fresh
Nestled deep within a brain region that processes memory is a sliver of tissue that continually sprouts brand-new neurons, at least into late adulthood

Illuminating Pathways of Neurological Disorders
Scientists have now described the engineering of a bright red fluorescent protein-based voltage indicator, providing pathways to understanding complex neurological disorders

Do I Like You? Subconscious Evaluation of Social Groups Occurs in Milliseconds
Freiburg scientist has decoded brain processes associated with the subconscious evaluation of social groups

Poor Short Term Memory Linked to Inability to Ignore Distractions
An individual’s working memory capacity correlate with the brain’s ability to actively ignore distraction

Understanding Consciousness Disorders
A bedside device that measures ‘brain signatures’ could help diagnose patients who have consciousness disorders

Barcoding the brain
IARPA funds effort to map synaptic connections

Lifelong memories may reside in nets around brain cells
Studies suggest key role for perineuronal networks of proteins and sugars in long-term memory

Alzheimer’s disease tied to brain’s navigation network
The way you navigate a virtual maze may predict your chances of getting Alzheimer’s

Wired for Cognitive Control
How does the brain determine which direction to let its thoughts fly?

Memory consolidation by gene suppression
The suppression mechanisms in the hippocampus appear to play a major role during memory consolidation

Dopamine and serotonin signals for reward across time scales
Neurons that release different neurotransmitters transmit different information aboutrewards

Slow or fast? A tale of synaptic vesicle recycling
A new model accounts for synaptic transmission speed

Brain crystals
Our brains may perceive distance differently in environments with polarized geometry

Observing Motor Neurons Walking in Real Time
Researchers develop a method to observe the activity of motor neurons in real time

Shorter School Week Improves Academic Performance
Shortening the school week to four days has a positive impact on elementary school students’ academic performance in mathematics

Predicting Response to Antipsychotic Medications with Neuroimaging
Investigators at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research have discovered that brain scans can be used to predict patients’ response to antipsychotic drug treatment

Giving Paralyzed People a Voice
New technology allows paralyzed people and those with locked in syndrome to communicate by using their breath

Brain Structure Differences Suggest Teens May Not ‘Grow Out of’ ADHD
Young adults diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence show differences in brain structure and perform poorly in memory tests compared to their peers

Automated Speech Analysis Program Can Identify People at Risk for Psychosis
An automated speech analysis program correctly differentiated between at-risk young people who developed psychosis over a two-and-a-half year period and those who did not

Lower Vitamin D Levels Associated with Higher Risk of Multiple Sclerosis
According to a new study, genetic findings support observational evidence that lower vitamin D levels are associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis

Study Shows ‘Smart Drug’ Modafinil Does Enhance Cognition
A new study reports modafilnil, a drug developed to treat narcolepsy and often touted as a 'smart drug', actually does provide cognitive benefits, at least for a particular subset of skills

Reprogramming Cancer Cells Back to Normal Cells
Cancer researchers dream of the day they can force tumor cells to morph back to the normal cells they once were

Surprising Link Between TBI and ADHD
A new study has found a “significant association” between adults who have suffered a traumatic brain injury at some point in their lives and who also have attention deficit hyperactive disorder

Break in Working Relationship Between Two Trash Clearing Proteins May Result in Parkinson’s Disease
Two proteins that share the ability to help cells deal with their trash appear to need each other to do their jobs and when they don’t connect, it appears to contribute to development of Parkinson’s disease

Researchers Visualize Critical Part of Basal Ganglia Pathways
Researchers use neuroimaging technology to visualize the pathways that connect the different areas of the basal ganglia. The research could lead to new tracking of disease progression in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease

Mechanism that Triggers Disruption in Neural Communication Channels in Schizophrenia Identified
Researchers have identified a mechanism which triggers the disruption in the brain's communication channels that occurs in schizophrenia.

Exploring the Relationship Between Autism and Creativity
New research has found that people with high levels of autistic traits are more likely to produce unusually creative ideas

Uncovering the Neurological Differences Between the Sexes
Researchers have discovered biological differences between males and females in the molecular regulation of synapses in the hippocampus.

Eye Movements During REM Sleep Reflects Brain Activity Associated with New Images
A new study offers evidence between rapid eye movement during sleep, accelerated brain activity and dream images.

Shedding Light on Why We Trust
Researchers shed new light on the neurobiology of why people trust one another.

Novel Memory Pathway Helps Us Recognize What’s New and What’s Familiar
Researchers have identified a novel neural network which processes incoming information based on whether it’s something we’ve experienced previously or not

A 3D tour of the central nervous system
For the first time, neuroscientists illuminated the pathways of an entire central nervous system (CNS)—and it’s all in 3D

Human Emotion Could be Predicted by Brain Signatures
Researchers have discovered a way to predict human emotions based on neural activity

A Mathematical Model for Memory
Researchers have developed a computer model which has allowed them to identify gene sets responsible for specific memory processes

Memory Permanence May Be Mediated by Neural Rehearsal Following Learning
The permanence of memories has long thought to be mediated solely by the production of new proteins

How to Live to 100: Scientists Crack the Secrets of Centenarians
To live to be 100, you need to keep inflammation low and telomeres long, a new study reports.

Algorithms Based on Brains Make For Better Networks
When it comes to developing efficient, robust networks, the brain may often know best

Learning Could Be Revolutionized by Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation Technique
Researchers claim to have discovered a new technique to non-invasively enhance brain excitability which could improve learning.

Diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease by Observing Brain Network Dynamics
Researchers visualize different activation systems in the brain

Structure of Human Brain Has an Almost Ideal Network of Connections
The structure of the human brain has an almost ideal network of connections, enabling optimal transmission of information from one area to another

Twitter Meme Mapping Method Reveals Neural Networks for Higher Cognition When Applied to Brain
Applying social network models to the brain reveals neural networks responsible for higher cognition, a new study reports.

Multiple Cortical Regions Work Together to Process Sensorimotor Information
Neuroscientists show that multiple cortical regions are needed to process information

Reconstructing Spoken Sentences From Brain Activity Patterns
Researchers show it is possible to reconstruct complete sentences of continuous speech from brain waves and generate corresponding text

MRI Sensitive to Metabolic Changes Reveals Brain Differences in Bipolar Disorder
Compared to the brains of people without bipolar disorder, the researchers found that the MRI signal was elevated in the cerebral white matter and the cerebellar region of patients affected by bipolar disorder. The elevated signal may be due to either a reduction in pH or a reduction in glucose concentration – both factors influenced by cell metabolism.

Corticothalamic phase synchrony and cross-frequency coupling predict human memory formation
The anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) is thought to play an important role in a brain network involving the hippocampus and neocortex, which enables human memories to be formed

Lost Memories Might Be Able to Be Restored
A new study reports long term memories might not be stored in synapses

What contributes to individual differences in brain structure?
Individual differences in adult human brain structure have been found to reveal a great deal of information about variability in behaviors, cognitive abilities and mental and physical health

Clever Suppression in the Brain
Diversity of inhibiting nerve cells allows for more complex information processing

New Insight into How the Brain Regulates Its Blood Flow
Researchers report they have identified a new component of the biological mechanism which controls blood flow in the brain.

Synchronized Brain Waves Enable Rapid Learning
Brain wave synchronization between the striatum and prefrontal cortex appear to assist with category learning, a new study reports

MRI Brain Scans Detect People with Early Parkinson’s
Researchers have developed a simple MRI technique which could help with early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

Inside the Adult ADHD Brain
Brain scans differentiate adults who have recovered from childhood ADHD and those whose difficulties linger

Turing Test Success Marks Milestone in Computing History
An historic milestone in artificial intelligence set by Alan Turing – the father of modern computer science – has been achieved at an event organised by the University of Reading

Does “Free Will” Stem From Brain Noise?
Researchers suggest our ability to make choices may arise from random fluctuations in neural activity

To Recover Consciousness, Brain Activity Passes through Newly Detected States
New research suggest the anesthetized brain must pass through certain way stations on the path back to consciousness

An Atomic View of Brain Activity
3D molecular model of the synapse structure

Kavli Prize
The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience is shared between Brenda Milner, John O’Keefe, and Marcus E. Raichle. They receive the prize “for the discovery of specialized brain networks for memory and cognition”

Researchers See Signs of Schizophrenia in Resting Brains
Researchers have discovered widespread disruption of signals while the brain is at rest in those suffering from the disabling neuropsychiatric disease

Delving Deep into the Brain
Tracking dopamine

Human Brain Hard Wired to Link What We See with What We Do
Your brain’s ability to instantly link what you see with what you do is down to a dedicated information ‘highway’

Forgetting Is Actively Regulated
Researchers discover a molecular mechanism which actively regulates the process of forgetting

Neural Networks of the Mouse Neocortex
This study is the first comprehensive mapping of the most developed region of the mammalian brain: the cerebral cortex

Leading Role of Supplementary Motor Area
Evaluating our actions, and detecting our errors, is crucial for adaptive behavior

An important molecular change that occurs in the brain when we learn and remember
The research shows that learning stimulates our brain cells in a manner that causes a small fatty acid to attach to delta-catenin, a protein in the brain

Banding Together to Control Movement
The motor cortex in the brain uses multiple frequency bands to coordinate movement

Study Reveals Workings of Working Memory
How your brain plucks information out of working memory when you decide to act

A Circuit for Change
Researchers identify a region of the hippocampus which is sensitive to small changes in familiar context

Human Brain Development Is a Symphony in Three Movements
The human brain develops with an exquisitely timed choreography marked by distinct patterns of gene activity at different stages from the womb to adulthood

Intact but Less Accessible Phonetic Representations in Adults with Dyslexia
The functional and structural connectivity between the bilateral auditory cortices and the left inferior frontal gyrus is significantly hampered in dyslexics

Toward a Molecular Explanation for Schizophrenia
TAU researchers find inhibition of a basic cellular process may contribute to the mysterious disease.

The Logistics of Learning
Learning requires constant reconfiguration of the connections between nerve cells. Two new studies now yield new insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the learning process

Brain Research Provides Insight into Language Learning
Researchers discover the mirror neuron system can be modified by language use

NIH Details Plan for BRAIN Initiative
After nearly a year of meetings and public debate, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) today announced how it intends to spend its share of funding for the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN)

Decoding Autism
A major role for genetics in ASDs is clear because heritability estimates are as high as 90%

Brain Chemical Ratios Help Predict Developmental Delays in Preterm Infants
A new study identifies a possible biomarker for predicting whether preterm infants are at risk for developing motor developmental problems

Synaptic Mechanisms of Brain Waves
Researchers explore synaptic mechanisms of rhythmic brain waves thanks to custom designed tools.

Scientists Improve Human Self-Control Through Electrical Brain Stimulation
Researchers successfully demonstrate a technique to enhance self control through a new form of brain stimulation

Gene Found to be Crucial for Formation of Certain Brain Circuitry
Researchers report they have discovered a gene involved in forming synapses

Researchers Uncover Mechanism Controlling Tourette Syndrome Tics
Researchers discover a mechanism in the brain which controls tics in children with Tourette Syndrome

Research Advances Knowledge of Triggers in Memory Formation
A new study advances basic understanding of the biochemical mechanisms associated with how memories are formed

Recurring Memory Traces Boost Long Lasting Memories
A new study indicates periods of rest can help boost memory performance

Fear in the Balance
Researchers report increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex is linked to decreased activity in the amygdala.

Kids Whose Bond With Mother Was Disrupted Early in Life Show Changes in Brain
A new neuroimaging study finds children who experienced maternal deprivation show different responses in the amygdala.

Brain Connectivity Study Reveals Striking Differences Between Men and Women
Using neuroimaging technology, researchers reveal striking differences in brain connectivity between men and women

Memories Are Geotagged with Spatial Information
Using a video game in which people navigate through a virtual town delivering objects to specific locations, a team of neuroscientists from the University of Pennsylvania and Freiburg University has discovered how brain cells that encode spatial information form “geotags” for specific memories and are activated immediately before those memories are recalled

Researchers Map Brain Areas Vital to Understanding Language
Researchers discover the brain mechanisms which underlie discourse comprehension

Researchers Discover Idling Brain Activity in Severely Brain Injured Patients Who “Wake Up” After Using a Sleep Drug
Pattern of brain activity points to possible neural circuit switched on by drug and may identify other patients who could respond

Connections in the Brains of Young Children Strengthen During Sleep
The connections between the right and left hemispheres of the brain strengthen during sleep for children

New Review Finds Statin Use Not Linked to a Decline in Cognitive Function
According to a comprehensive systematic review, available evidence does not support an association between statins and cognitive decline

Quantity, Not Just Quality, in New Brain Scan Method
Using MRI neuroimaging, researchers develop a new method of quantifying brain tissue volume

A Trace of Memory: Researchers Watch Neurons in the Brain During Learning and Memory Recall
Researchers track single neurons in mice brains over time using advanced neuroimaging techniques. The new technique allowed them to establish the processes at play during memory formation and recall

Researchers Report New Insights on Human Brain, Consciousness
Using neuroimaging techniques, researchers find new clues as to what happens to the brain as it slips into unconsciousness

Sleep Clears Brain of Molecules Associated With Neurodegeneration
These results suggest a new role for sleep in health and disease

Psychologists Report New Insights On Human Brain, Consciousness
UCLA psychologists have used brain-imaging techniques to study what happens to the human brain when it slips into unconsciousness

Brain Scans May Aid in Diagnosis of Autism
Research indicates that brain scans show signs of autism that could eventually support behavior-based diagnosis of autism and effective early intervention therapies

Schizophrenia Linked to Abnormal Brain Waves: Neurological Hyperactivity Produces Disordered Thinking
Schizophrenia patients usually suffer from a breakdown of organized thought, often accompanied by delusions or hallucinations. For the first time, MIT neuroscientists have observed the neural activity that appears to produce this disordered thinking

Time for bed
Little is known about the links between the time that young children go to bed and their cognitive development

New Hope for Premature Babies at Risk of Brain Damage
Babies who suffer a bleed on their brain could be saved from debilitating brain damage. А new drug can prevent the swelling of the organ which causes it.

Sticks and Stones: Brain Releases Natural Painkillers During Social Rejection
Researchers find the opioid system responds to social rejection, not just physical pain

Brain Development Differs in Children Who Stutter
Children who stutter have less gray matter in key areas of the brain responsible for speech production.

Right Supramarginal Gyrus Plays Important Role in Empathy
Egoism and narcissism appear to be on the rise in our society, while empathy is on the decline.

Primate Brain Development Follows a Predictable Pattern
In a breakthrough for understanding brain evolution, neuroscientists have shown that differences between primate brains – from the tiny marmoset to human – can be largely explained as consequences of the same genetic program.

Brain Anatomy and Language in Young Children
Researchers studying brain development in young children who were acquiring language expected to see increasing levels of myelin, a nerve fiber insulator, on the left side. They didn’t: The larger myelin structure was already there. Their study underscores the importance of environment in language development.

Study Shows How Infections in Newborns are Linked to Later Behavior Problems
Inflammation in the brain prevents cells from accessing the iron they need in order to perform a critical role in neurodevelopment.

Class of Cortical Inhibitory Neurons That Specialize in Disinhibition Identified
An inhibitory neuron type is found to specifically suppress the activation of other inhibitory neurons in cerebral cortex.

Well Connected Hemispheres of Einstein’s Brain May Have Sparked Brilliance
The left and right hemispheres of Albert Einstein’s brain were unusually well connected to each other and may have contributed to his brilliance

Researchers Identify Neural Circuits That Modulate REM Sleep
Researchers used optogenetics to induce REM sleep in mice. They were able to modulate the duration of the REM phase by activating the neural network in the lateral hypothalamus.

Dynamics of Protein Synthesis at Neuron Tip is Basis for Memory and Learning
When a laser is passed over the green protein, it changes to red as a way of tagging when it has been been translated, and new proteins synthesized at that hotspot would be green, which is visible by the appearance of yellow fluorescence. These tricks of the light allow the team to keep track of newly made proteins over time and space.

Feelings Forge Stronger Memories
Bad experiences enhance memory formation about places, scientists at The University of Queensland have found.

A Neurological Basis for the Lack of Empathy in Psychopaths
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse, shallow affect, glibness, manipulation and callousness. Previous research indicates that the rate of psychopathy in prisons is around 23%, greater than the average population which is around 1%.

Nanoscale Neuronal Activity Measured for the First Time
Applying a high-resolution scanning probe microscopy which allowed 3D visualisation of the stuctures, researchers were able to record and measure the flow of currents in small synaptic terminals.

Researchers Show How Brain Cell Connections Become Cemented Early in Life
Research on synapse stabilization could aid understanding of autism, schizophrenia, intellectual disability.

Memory Related Brain Network Shrinks with Aging
The researchers found that brain volume in the default network (a set of brain regions associated with internally generated thoughts such as memory) declined in both healthy and pathological aging.

Coma: Researchers Observe Never Before Detected Brain Activity
Active brain state beyond the deep coma associated with a flat EEG.

Researchers Study How and Where Imagination Occurs in Human Brains
New insights into ‘mental workspace’ may help advance artificial intelligence.

'Love Hormone' May Play Wider Role in Social Interaction Than Previously Thought
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have shown that oxytocin -- often referred to as "the love hormone" because of its importance in the formation and maintenance of strong mother-child and sexual attachments -- is involved in a broader range of social interactions than previously understood.

How Schizophrenia Affects the Brain
It's hard to fully understand a mental disease like schizophrenia without peering into the human brain. Now, a study by University of Iowa psychiatry professor Nancy Andreasen uses brain scans to document how schizophrenia impacts brain tissue as well as the effects of anti-psychotic drugs on those who have relapses.

Scientists Create New Memories by Directly Changing the Brain
By studying how memories are made, UC Irvine neurobiologists created new, specific memories by direct manipulation of the brain, which could prove key to understanding and potentially resolving learning and memory disorders.

Capturing Brain Activity With Sculpted Light
A major aim of today's neuroscience is to understand how an organism's nervous system processes sensory input and generates behavior. To achieve this goal, scientists must obtain detailed maps of how the nerve cells are wired up in the brain, as well as information on how these networks interact in real time.

Memory Protein Fades With Age
One gene in particular reduced its expression by about 50% with age in both human tissue and in rodents, the researchers report today in Science Translational Medicine. The gene codes for a protein called RbAp48 that regulates gene expression in a part of the hippocampus, called the dentate gyrus, which has been implicated in normal memory loss. A separate region of the hippocampus known to be the point of onset for Alzheimer's disease showed no differences in expression of the age-related gene.

An Ultrahigh-Resolution 3D Human Brain Model

Mapping the Brain: Researchers Use Signals from Natural Movements to Identify Brain Regions
Whether we run to catch a bus or reach for a pen: Activities that involve the use of muscles are related to very specific areas in the brain. Traditionally, their exact location has only been determined through electrical stimulation or unnatural, experimental tasks. A team of scientists in Freiburg has now succeeded for the first time in mapping the brain's surface using measurements of everyday movements

Neuroimaging May Offer New Way to Diagnose Bipolar Disorder
MRI may be an effective way to diagnose mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder

Neural Decoding of Visual Imagery During Sleep
Decoding models trained on stimulus-induced brain activity in visual cortical areas showed accurate classification, detection, and identification of contents. The research results demonstrate that specific visual experience during sleep is represented by brain activity patterns shared by stimulus perception, providing a means to uncover subjective contents of dreaming using objective neural measurement.

Brilliant Dye to Probe the Brain
To obtain very-high-resolution 3D images of the cerebral vascular system, a dye is used that fluoresces in the near infrared and can pass through the skin

The Geometric Structure of the Brain Fiber Pathways
Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, Van Weeden and colleagues show that the fiber pathways of the forebrain are organized as a highly curved 3D grid derived from the principal axes of development

Scientists Create Novel Approach to Find RNAs Involved in Long-term Memory Storage
Despite decades of research, relatively little is known about the identity of RNA molecules that are transported as part of the molecular process underpinning learning and memory

Gone, But Not Forgotten
UC San Diego scientists recall EP, perhaps the world’s second-most famous amnesiac

First Steps of Synapse Building Is Captured in Live Zebra Fish Embryos
Using spinning disk microscopy on barely day-old zebra fish embryos, University of Oregon scientists have gained a new window on how synapse-building components move to worksites in the central nervous system

Brain's 'Slow Waves': Scientists Probe Source of Pulsing Signal in Sleeping Brain
New findings clarify where and how the brain's "slow waves" originate. These rhythmic signal pulses, which sweep through the brain during deep sleep at the rate of about one cycle per second, are assumed to play a role in processes such as consolidation of memory. For the first time, researchers have shown conclusively that slow waves start in the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain responsible for cognitive functions.

Flashing fish brains filmed in action
Fast imaging in larval zebrafish produces first neuron-level vertebrate brain-activity map

Subconscious Mental Categories Help Brain Sort Through Everyday Experiences
Researchers found that the brain breaks experiences into the "events," or related groups that help us mentally organize the day's many situations, using subconscious mental categories it creates

First Objective Measure of Pain Discovered in Brain Scan Patterns
For the first time, scientists have been able to predict how much pain people are feeling by looking at images of their brains

See-through brains clarify connections
Technique to make tissue transparent offers three-dimensional view of neural networks

Increased Brain Activity Predicts Future Onset of Substance Use
Do people get caught in the cycle of overeating and drug addiction because their brain reward centers are over-active, causing them to experience greater cravings for food or drugs?

Experts Call for Research On Prevalence of Delayed Neurological Dysfunction After Head Injury
One of the most controversial topics in neurology today is the prevalence of serious permanent brain damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Study Sheds Light on how to Reset the Addicted Brain
Research suggests that targeted stimulation of the brain’s prefrontal cortex is a promising treatment for addiction

Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative
The NIH Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative is part of a new Presidential focus aimed at revolutionizing our understanding of the human brain. By accelerating the development and application of innovative technologies, researchers will be able to produce a revolutionary new dynamic picture of the brain that, for the first time, shows how individual cells and complex neural circuits interact in both time and space

Hierarchical Genetic Organization of Human Cortical Surface Area
Surface area of the cerebral cortex is a highly heritable trait, yet little is known about genetic influences on regional cortical differentiation in humans. Using a data-driven, fuzzy clustering technique with magnetic resonance imaging data from 406 twins, we parceled cortical surface area into genetic subdivisions, creating a human brain atlas based solely on genetically informative data. Boundaries of the genetic divisions corresponded largely to meaningful structural and functional regions.

Alterations in Brain Activity in Children at Risk of Schizophrenia Predate Onset of Symptoms
Brain scans of children who have parents or siblings with the illness reveal a neural circuitry that is hyperactivated or stressed by tasks that peers with no family history of the illness seem to handle with ease

First Neutron Scattering Experiments on Brain Tissue Reveal Weaknesses in Formaldehyde Preservation, Reducing Reliability of Post-Mortem Analysis
These results are the first step in a project to push back the limits of existing dMRI imaging technology, to improve diagnosis and investigate potential treatments for brain diseases.

Atypical Brain Circuits May Cause Slower Gaze Shifting in Infants Who Later Develop Autism
These findings suggest that 7-month-olds who go on to develop autism show subtle, yet overt, behavioral differences prior to the emergence of the disorder

Study Reveals How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects from LSD to Migraine Medication
A team including scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has determined and analyzed the high-resolution atomic structures of two kinds of human serotonin receptors

Low Cost Cooling Cure Would Avert Brain Damage in Oxygen Starved Babies
When babies are deprived of oxygen before birth, brain damage and disorders such as cerebral palsy can occur. Extended cooling can prevent brain injuries, but this treatment is not always available in developing nations where advanced medical care is scarce

Difficulty in Recognizing Faces in Autism Linked to Performance in a Group of Neurons
Neuroscientists at Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC) have discovered a brain anomaly that explains why some people diagnosed with autism cannot easily recognize faces, a deficit linked to the impairments in social interactions considered to be the hallmark of the disorder

Athletes with Suspected Concussion Should Be Removed from Play
With more than one million athletes now experiencing a concussion each year in the United States, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) has released an evidence-based guideline for evaluating and managing athletes with concussion

Transplanted Brain Cells in Monkeys Light Up Personalized Therapy
For the first time, scientists have transplanted neural cells derived from a monkey’s skin into its brain and watched the cells develop into several types of mature brain cells, according to the authors of a new study in Cell Reports. After six months, the cells looked entirely normal

One Region, Two Functions: Brain Cells’ Multitasking Could be a Key to Understanding Overall Brain Function
A region of the brain known to play a key role in visual and spatial processing has a parallel function: sorting visual information into categories, according to a new study by researchers

How the Body’s Energy Molecule Transmits Three Types of Taste to the Brain
Exactly how cells transmit taste information to the brain for three out of the five primary taste types was pretty much a mystery, until now

Deep Brain Stimulation Shows Promise for Patients with Chronic, Treatment Resistant Anorexia Nervosa
In a world first, a team of researchers at the Krembil Neuroscience Centre and the University Health Network have shown that Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in patients with chronic, severe and treatment-resistant Anorexia Nervosa (anorexia) helps some patients achieve and maintain improvements in body weight, mood, and anxiety

People with MS-Related Memory and Attention Problems Have Signs of Extensive Brain Damage
People with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have cognitive problems, or problems with memory, attention, and concentration, have more damage to areas of the brain involved in cognitive processes than people with MS who do not have cognitive problems

Parkinson’s Disease Brain Rhythms Detected
Researchers have discovered how to detect abnormal brain rhythms associated with Parkinson’s disease by implanting electrodes into the brains of patients with this neurodegenerative disorder

How the Brain Loses and Regains Consciousness
Since the mid-1800s, doctors have used drugs to induce general anesthesia in patients undergoing surgery. Despite their widespread use, little is known about how these drugs create such a profound loss of consciousness

Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms at four loci surpassed the cutoff for genome-wide significance (p<5×10−8) in the primary analysis: regions on chromosomes 3p21 and 10q24, and SNPs within two L-type voltage-gated calcium channel subunits, CACNA1C and CACNB2s

Has Evolution Given Humans Unique Brain Structures?
Our ancestors evolutionarily split from those of rhesus monkeys about 25 million years ago. Since then, brain areas have been added, have disappeared or have changed in function.

Where Does Our Head Come From?
In a study published in PLoS Biology, they show that in a simple, brainless sea anemone, the same genes that control head development in higher animals regulate the development of the front end of the swimming larvae

How Human Language Could Have Evolved from Birdsong
The sounds uttered by birds offer in several respects the nearest analogy to language,” Charles Darwin wrote in “The Descent of Man” (1871), while contemplating how humans learned to speak. Language, he speculated, might have had its origins in singing, which “might have given rise to words expressive of various complex emotions.”

Neuroscientist Sheds Light on Cause for ‘Chemo Brain’
Study finds fog-like condition related to chemotherapy’s effect on new brain cells and rhythms

Secrets of Human Speech Uncovered
A team of researchers at UC San Francisco has uncovered the neurological basis of speech motor control, the complex coordinated activity of tiny brain regions that controls our lips, jaw, tongue and larynx as we speak

Reading the Minds of Mice
Stanford scientists have developed a system for observing real-time brain activity in a live mouse

Engineering Control Theory Helps Create Dynamic Brain Models
Models of the human brain, patterned on engineering control theory, may some day help researchers control such neurological diseases as epilepsy, Parkinson’s and migraines, according to a Penn State researcher who is using mathematical models of neuron networks from which more complex brain models emerge

Eye Movements Reveal Impaired Reading in Schizophrenia
A study of eye movements in schizophrenia patients provides new evidence of impaired reading fluency in individuals with the mental illness

Brain Differences Seen at 6 Months in Infants Who Develop Autism
Researchers have found significant differences in brain development in infants as young as six months old who later develop autism, compared with babies who don’t develop the disorder

Nanomachines for Bionic Proteins
Physicists of the University of Vienna together with researchers from the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna developed nano-machines which recreate principal activities of proteins

Turn Off the Ability to Feel Cold
USC neuroscientists have isolated chills at a cellular level, identifying the sensory network of neurons in the skin that relays the sensation of cold

Finding the Way to Memory: Receptor Plays Key Role in Regulating Plasticity of Brain's Nerve Cell Connections
A new study from the Montreal Neurological Institute-The Neuro, McGill University, reveals that DCC, the receptor for a crucial protein in the nervous system known as netrin, plays a key role in regulating the plasticity of nerve cell connections in the brain

Brain Activity Study Lends Insight Into Schizophrenia
Magnetic fields produced by the naturally occurring electrical currents in the brain could potentially be used as an objective test for schizophrenia and help to better understand the disease, according to new research published today

Engineers Solve a Biological Mystery and Boost Artificial Intelligence
By simulating 25,000 generations of evolution within computers, Cornell University engineering and robotics researchers have discovered why biological networks tend to be organized as modules, a finding that will lead to a deeper understanding of the evolution of complexity

Mom’s Love Good for Child’s Brain
School-age children whose mothers nurtured them early in life have brains with a larger hippocampus, a key structure important to learning, memory and response to stress

Previously Unknown Mechanism of Memory Formation Discovered
It takes a lot to make a memory. New proteins have to be synthesized, neuron structures altered. While some of these memory-building mechanisms are known, many are not. Some recent studies have indicated that a unique group of molecules called microRNAs, known to control production of proteins in cells, may play a far more important role in memory formation than previously thought

In-Brain Monitoring Shows Memory Network
Working with patients with electrodes implanted in their brains, researchers at the University of California, Davis, and The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have shown for the first time that areas of the brain work together at the same time to recall memories. The unique approach promises new insights into how we remember details of time and place

Chance Finding Reveals New Control on Blood Vessels in Developing Brain
Zhen Huang freely admits he was not interested in blood vessels four years ago when he was studying brain development in a fetal mouse

The Role of Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Memory and Decision Making
Some have claimed that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates decision making. Others suggest mPFC is selectively involved in the retrieval of remote long-term memory. Yet others suggests mPFC supports memory and consolidation on time scales ranging from seconds to days. How can all these roles be reconciled?

Scientists Debunk the IQ Myth: Notion of Measuring One's Intelligence Quotient by Singular, Standardized Test Is Highly Misleading
After conducting the largest online intelligence study on record, a Western University-led research team has concluded that the notion of measuring one's intelligence quotient or IQ by a singular, standardized test is highly misleading

How the Brain Categorizes Thousands of Objects and Actions
Our eyes may be our window to the world, but how do we make sense of the thousands of images that flood our retinas each day? Scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, have found that the brain is wired to put in order all the categories of objects and actions that we see. They have created the first interactive map of how the brain organizes these groupings.

MRIs Reveal Signs of Brain Injuries Not Seen in CT Scans
Hospital MRIs may be better at predicting long-term outcomes for people with mild traumatic brain injuries than CT scans, the standard technique for evaluating such injuries in the emergency room, according to a clinical trial led by researchers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and the San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center (SFGH)

How We Update Our Goals Based On New Information
Humans are adept at setting goals and updating them as new situations arise - for example, a person who is playing a video game may switch to a new goal when their phone rings.

Advanced Brain Investigations Can Become Better and Cheaper
An important method for brain research and diagnosis is magnetoencephalography (MEG). But the MEG systems are so expensive that not all EU countries have one today. A group of Swedish researchers are now showing that MEG can be performed with technology that is significantly cheaper than that which is used today-technology that can furthermore provide new knowledge about the brain

Unprecedented Accuracy in Locating Brain Electrical Activity With New Device
Researchers at Aalto University in Finland have developed the world's first device designed for mapping the human brain that combines whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. MEG measures the electrical function and MRI visualizes the structure of the brain. The merging of these two technologies will produce unprecedented accuracy in locating brain electrical activity non-invasively

Two Steps During LTP Remodel Internal Skeleton Of Dendritic Spines
Neuroscience researchers have discovered how a structural component within neurons performs coordinated movements when connections are strengthened. Researchers also distinguished two separate steps during long term potentiation which are involved in remodeling the internal “skeletons” of dendritic spines

Loneliness? It’s All a State of Mind
Researchers from UCL have found that lonely people have less grey matter in a part of the brain associated with decoding eye gaze and other social cues

How the Brain Forms Categories
Neurobiologists investigated how the brain is able to group external stimuli into stable categories

First Micro-Structure Atlas of the Human Brain Completed
A European team of scientists have built the first atlas of white-matter microstructure in the human brain

A Glance at the Brain’s Circuit Diagram
A new method facilitates the mapping of connections between neurons

Discovery of Two Opposite Ways Humans Voluntarily Forget Unwanted Memories
It turns out there’s not one, but two opposite ways in which the brain allows us to voluntarily forget unwanted memories

Researchers Explore How the Brain Perceives Direction and Location
Dartmouth neurobiologist Jeffrey Taube asks “where are you?” and “where are you going?”

Researchers Discover that the Sleeping Brain Behaves as if it’s Remembering Something
UCLA researchers have for the first time measured the activity of a brain region known to be involved in learning, memory and Alzheimer’s disease during sleep

S1 long-term plasticity
S1 long-term plasticity refers to persistent modifications in the structure or functioning of the primary somatosensory cortex

Discovery of Gatekeeper Nerve Cells Explains the Effect of Nicotine on Learning and Memory
Swedish researchers at Uppsala University have, together with Brazilian collaborators, discovered a new group of nerve cells that regulate processes of learning and memory

Frontal eye field
The Frontal Eye Field is a region of primate prefrontal cortex defined as the area in which low-current electrical stimulation evokes saccadic eye movements

Researchers Create a Universal Map of Vision in the Human Brain
The researchers combined traditional fMRI measures of brain activity from 25 people with normal vision. They then identified a precise statistical relationship between the structure of the folds of the brain and the representation of the visual world.

Simpler Nervous Systems
X East European Conference of the International Society for Invertebrate Neurobiology, Moscow, Russia, September 6-10, 2012

Music Underlies Language Acquisition
Contrary to the prevailing theories that music and language are  cognitively separate or that music is a byproduct of language, theorists at Rice University’s Shepherd School of Music and the University of Maryland, College Park advocate that music underlies the ability to acquire language

Blue Brain Project Accurately Predicts Connections Between Neurons
Proof of concept: Researchers identify principles to support brain simulation models

Stress Breaks Loops that Hold Short-Term Memory Together
Stress has long been pegged as the enemy of attention, disrupting focus and doing substantial damage to working memory — the short-term juggling of information that allows us to do all the little things that make us productive

Scientists Use Prosthetic Device to Restore and Improve Impaired Decision Making Ability in Animals
Imagine a prosthetic device capable of restoring decision-making in people who have reduced capacity due to brain disease or injury. While this may sound like science fiction, researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center have proven for the first time that it is possible in non-human primates, and believe that one day it will be possible in people

Researchers Create Short-Term Memories In-Vitro
Research in October issue of Nature Neuroscience sheds new light on the mechanics of memory

A Brain Filter for Clear Information Transmission
DZNE researchers: Neuronal inhibition is key for memory formation

Noisy Surroundings Take Toll on Short-term Memory
Speech content and bad acoustics draw on same limited brain resources

Predicting How Patients Respond to Therapy
Brain scans could help doctors choose treatments for people with social anxiety disorder

Chocolate: A Sweet Method for Stroke Prevention in Men?
Eating a moderate amount of chocolate each week may be associated with a lower risk of stroke in men, according to a new study published in the August 29, 2012, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology

Potential Treatment for Cognitive Effects of Stress-Related Disorders, Including PTSD
Experimental drug prevents cognitive effects of stress

Math Ability Requires Crosstalk in the Brain
A new study by researchers at UT Dallas’ Center for Vital Longevity, Duke University, and the University of Michigan has found that the strength of communication between the left and right hemispheres of the brain predicts performance on basic arithmetic problems. The findings shed light on the neural basis of human math abilities and suggest a possible route to aiding those who suffer from dyscalculia– an inability to understand and manipulate numbers

Video Shows the Traffic Inside a Brain Cell
New imaging technique reveals the brain’s continuous renovation

Researchers Discover New Non-Invasive Method for Diagnosing Epilepsy
Findings could help millions of people who are unable to control seizures

The Roots of Human Self-Awareness
New study points to a complex, diffuse patchwork of brain pathways

Common Parasite May Trigger Suicide Attempts
A parasite thought to be harmless and found in many people may actually be causing subtle changes in the brain, leading to suicide attempts

Multi-dimensional Brain Measurements Can Assess Child’s Age
Timing of brain maturation is more tightly controlled than previously known

Neuroscientists Find Brain Stem Cells that May Be Responsible for Higher Functions, Bigger Brains
Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute have identified a new stem cell population that may be responsible for giving birth to the neurons responsible for higher thinking. The finding also paves the way for scientists to produce these neurons in culture—a first step in developing better treatments for cognitive disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, which result from disrupted connections among these brain cells

Brain Hubs Boil when Hoarders Face Pitching Their Own Stuff
Impaired decision-making traced to the “Salience Network” in a new NIH study

New Model Synapse Could Shed Light on Disorders Such as Epilepsy and Anxiety
A new way to study the role of a critical neurotransmitter in disorders such as epilepsy, anxiety, insomnia, depression, schizophrenia, and alcohol addiction has been developed by a group of scientists led by Gong Chen, an associate professor of biology at Penn State University. The new method involves molecularly engineering a model synapse — a structure through which a nerve cell send signals to another cell. This model synapse can precisely control a variety of receptors for the neurotransmitter called GABA, which is important in brain chemistry

Simple Mathematical Computations Underlie Brain Circuits
Discovery of how some neurons inhibit others could shed light on autism, other neurological disorders

Making It Easier to Learn to Read: Dyslexia Caused by Signal Processing in the Brain
To participate successfully in life, it is important to be able to read and write. Nevertheless, many children and adults have difficulties in acquiring these skills and the reason is not always obvious. They suffer from dyslexia which can have a variety of symptoms. Thanks to research carried out by Begoña Díaz and her colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, a major step forward has been made in understanding the cause of dyslexia. The scientists have discovered an important neural mechanism underlying dyslexia and shown that many difficulties associated with dyslexia can potentially be traced back to a malfunction of the medial geniculate body in the thalamus. The results provide an important basis for developing potential treatments

Researchers Find Genetic Cause for Body Tremors
Researchers at the University of Montreal and its affiliated CHU Sainte-Justine and CHUM hospitals have linked some cases of Essential Tremor (ET) to a specific genetic problem. ET is the most common movement disorder, becoming increasingly frequent with increasing age, which is characterized by an involuntary shaking movement (tremor) that occurs with motion, particularly when doing precise fine movement. The researchers will be publishing their findings today in The American Journal of Human Genetics

Can Predict How Intelligent You Are, Study Finds
‘Global Brain Connectivity’ explains 10 percent of variance in individual intelligence

Brains Are Different in People with Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory
UCI study finds structural variations among those who recall their lives perfectly

Brain Development is Delayed in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) due to a delay in brain development or the result of complete deviation from typical development? In the current issue of Biological Psychiatry, Dr. Philip Shaw and colleagues present evidence for delay based on a study by the National Institutes of Health

Connectomics: Mapping the Neural Network Governing Male Roundworm Mating
In a study published today online in Science, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have determined the complete wiring diagram for the part of the nervous system controlling mating in the male roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, an animal model intensively studied by scientists worldwide

The Seat of Meta-Consciousness in the Brain
Studies of lucid dreamers visualise which centers of the brain become active when we become aware of ourselves

Scientists Read Monkeys’ Inner Thoughts
By decoding brain activity, scientists were able to ‘see’ that 2 monkeys were planning to approach the same reaching task differently – even before they moved a muscle

Why the Thrill is Gone: Scientists Identify Potential Target for Treating Major Symptom of Depression
Stanford University School of Medicine scientists have laid bare a novel molecular mechanism responsible for the most important symptom of major depression: anhedonia, the loss of the ability to experience pleasure. While their study was conducted in mice, the brain circuit involved in this newly elucidated pathway is largely identical between rodents and humans, upping the odds that the findings point toward new therapies for depression and other disorders

When Anxiety Won’t Go Away
Researchers decode a molecular mechanism that sheds light on how trauma can become engraved in the brain

Study Finds Genes Associated with Hippocampal Atrophy
In a genome-wide association (GWA) study, researchers from Boston University Schools of Medicine (BUSM) and Public Health (BUSPH), have identified several genes which influence degeneration of the hippocampus, the part of the brain most associated with Alzheimer disease (AD).  The study, which currently appears online as a Rapid Communication in the Annals of Neurology, demonstrates the efficacy of endophenotypes for broadening the understanding of the genetic basis of and pathways leading to AD

Neural Fingerprints of Memory Associations
Researchers have long been interested in discovering the ways that human brains represent thoughts through a complex interplay of electrical signals.  Recent improvements in brain recording and statistical methods have given researchers unprecedented insight into the physical processes underlying thoughts.  For example, researchers have begun to show that it is possible to use brain recordings to reconstruct aspects of an image or movie clip someone is viewing, a sound someone is hearing or even the text someone is reading.

Clues to Nervous System Evolution Found in Nerve-less Sponge
UC Santa Barbara scientists turned to the simple sponge to find clues about the evolution of the complex nervous system and found that, but for a mechanism that coordinates the expression of genes that lead to the formation of neural synapses, sponges and the rest of the animal world may not be so distant after all. Their findings, titled “Functionalization of a protosynaptic gene expression network,” are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Conscious Perception is a Matter of Global Neural Networks
New findings support the view that the content of consciousness is not localised in a unique cortical area.

Neuroscientists Reach Major Milestone in Whole-Brain Circuit Mapping Project
Neuroscientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) reached an important milestone today, publicly releasing the first installment of data from the 500 terabytes so far collected in their pathbreaking project to construct the first whole-brain wiring diagram of a vertebrate brain, that of the mouse

Revealing the Stars of Brain Adaptability
Star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes are found to bridge the gap between global brain activity and localized circuits

Learning Mechanism of the Adult Brain Revealed
They say you can’t teach an old dog new tricks. Fortunately, this is not always true. Researchers at the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience (NIN-KNAW) have now discovered how the adult brain can adapt to new situations.

Brain Signal IDs Responders to Fast-Acting Antidepressants
Biomarkers help pinpoint mechanisms, predict outcomes according to NIH studies

Migraine Patients Find Pain Relief in Electrical Brain Stimulation
Chronic migraine sufferers saw significant pain relief after four weeks of electrical brain stimulation in the part of the brain responsible for voluntary movement, the motor cortex, according to a new study

Brain Network Reveals Disorders
Researchers at ETH Zurich and the University of Zurich identify a new method of unerringly detecting the presence of pathophysiological changes in the brain

Data Mining Opens the Door to Predictive Neuroscience
Researchers at the EPFL have discovered rules that relate the genes that a neuron switches on and off, to the shape of that neuron, its electrical properties and its location in the brain

Researchers Use Brain Injury Data to Map Intelligence in the Brain
Scientists report that they have mapped the physical architecture of intelligence in the brain

Primitive Consciousness Emerges First as You Awaken from Anesthesia
Awakening from anesthesia is often associated with an initial phase of delirious struggle before the full restoration of awareness and orientation to one’s surroundings. Scientists now know why this may occur: primitive consciousness emerges first

How Genes Organize the Surface of the Brain
The first atlas of the surface of the human brain based upon genetic information has been produced by a national team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the VA San Diego Healthcare System

Brain Wiring a No-Brainer?
Scans reveal astonishingly simple 3D grid structure

Blocking “Oh-Glick-Nack” May Improve Long-Term Memory
Just as the familiar sugar in food can be bad for the teeth and waistline, another sugar has been implicated as a health menace and blocking its action may have benefits that include improving long-term memory in older people and treating cancer

Researchers Show that Memories Reside in Specific Brain Cells
Simply activating a tiny number of neurons can conjure an entire memory

Smell is a Symphony
Stowers researchers present a new model for how the brain is organized to process odor information

Making Memories: How 1 Protein Does It
MicroRNAs key to memory and learning process

Walk This Way: Scientists and MBL Physiology Course Students Describe How a Motor Protein “Steps Out”
Just like people, some proteins have characteristic ways of “walking,” which (also like human gaits) are not so easy to describe. But now scientists have discovered the unique “drunken sailor” gait of dynein, a protein that is critical for the function of every cell in the body and whose malfunction has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig’s disease and Parkinson’s disease

International workshop "Sleep: a window to the world of wakefulness"
The 6th International workshop "Sleep: a window to the world of wakefulness" October 6-7, 2011, Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology RAS, Moscow,Russia

Brain Waves Control the Impact of Noise On Sleep
During sleep, our perception of the environment decreases. However the extent to which the human brain responds to surrounding noises during sleep remains unclear. In a study published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), researchers from University of Liège (Belgium) used brain imaging to study responses to sounds during sleep.

Reelin Nerve Cells Into Neocortex Without Glial Cell Hooks
Scientists found that the protein named reelin is deeply involved in the migration of new nerve cells to the neocortex independently of glial cells.The research provides evidence that one class of molecules involved with reelin’s control of nerve migration is cadherin. The researchers showed that reelin controls the function of cadherins in nerve cells. Cadherins have been shown previously to play a role in brain formation by acting as a glue that allows cells to attach to each other as they move. Understanding the role of reelin in nerve cell migration is critical to improving treatments to brain formation disorders and diseases such as epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia, microcephaly and lissencephaly.

Bullying, Genetics and Emotions: New Research Shows Links
Genetics research into the emotional responses of bullying shows that many bullied victims that later experience more emotional problems have genetic similarities. The Nature vs Nurture discussions are sure to focus on this new research involving twin studies and the effects of bullying. This genetics research should prove important to readers interested in education, genetics, learning, mental health and safety.

Adrenaline Receptor Imaged for First Time
New imaging techniques using newly developed stable antibodies and X-ray crystallography allows imaging of the adrenaline receptors for the first time

Pain in the Potassium Channels
The removal of a certain class of potassium channels from the surface of nociceptors is believed to be a key factor in inflammatory pain signaling.
Using gene interference to reduce the expression of these specific potassium channels on nociceptors, researchers were able to produce hyperexcitability in nociceptors resembling that seen in inflammatory pain signaling.
This pain research could lead to safer and more effective pain treatment. Further details are in the article below.

The Fearless SM: Woman Missing Amygdala
A woman with bilateral damage relatively restricted to the amygdala is the subject of a case study recently reported.

Associations between Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Variation with Both Infidelity and Sexual Promiscuity
Human sexual behavior is highly variable both within and between populations. While sex-related characteristics and sexual behavior are central to evolutionary theory (sexual selection), little is known about the genetic bases of individual variation in sexual behavior. The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in exon III of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been correlated with an array of behavioral phenotypes and may be predicatively responsible for variation in motivating some sexual behaviors, particularly promiscuity and infidelity.

Human Thought Can Voluntarily Control Neurons in Brain
Neuroscience research involving epileptic patients with brain electrodes surgically implanted in their medial temporal lobes shows that patients learned to consciously control individual neurons deep in the brain with thoughts. Subjects learned to control mouse cursors, play video games and alter focus of digital images with their thoughts. The patients were each using brain computer interfaces, deep brain electrodes and software designed for the research.

Early Education Fights Dementia
Brain research reveals a correlation between amount of education and dementia.

Neuroscience of Music – How Music Enhances Learning Through Neuroplasticity
Scientific review of how music training primes nervous system and boosts learning

Simpler Nervous Systems 2009
In 2009 the IX East European regional International Conference sponsored by the International Society for Invertebrate Neurobiology “Simpler Nervous Systems” will be held in St.Petersburg, Russia,September 9-13, 2009

Lecture - Seminar
Hannah Monyer and Peter Seeburg.

Rhythmic Interactions Between Cortical Layers Underlie Working Memory
A new study suggests a general model of working memory. The findings could help shed light on condition, such as schizophrenia, where working memory function becomes compromised.

Inherited IQ Can Increase in Early Childhood
Positive stimulation helps boost inherited intelligence in young children, researchers report

Can’t Get an Image Out of Your Head? Your Eyes Are Helping to Keep it There
A new study reveals the brain utilizes eye movements to help recall vivid memories of past experiences

‘Mind Reading’ Algorithm Uses EEG Data to Reconstruct Images Based on What We Perceive
Researchers have developed a new technique that uses EEG data to reconstruct images based on how we perceive face

Why Morning People Should Not Work at Night
Early risers take less time to complete memory related tasks than night owls, but tend to make more mistakes

Neural Networks: Why Larger Brains Are More Susceptible to Mental Illness
Weaker long distance connections in the mammalian brain may explain why bigger brains are more susceptible to mental illnesses

Map Of The Developing Human Brain Shows Where Problems Begin
A high-resolution map of the human brain in utero is providing hints about the origins of brain disorders including schizophrenia and autism.

Research Reveals White Matter ‘Scaffold’ of Human Brain
Researchers identify the white matter scaffold of the brain, a critical communication network which supports brain function

A Single Spray of Oxytocin Improves Brain Function in Children with Autism
A single dose of oxytocin can enhance brain activity while processing social information in children with autism, a new study reports

Study Finds Altered Brain Connections in Epilepsy Patients
Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have widespread, abnormal connections in their brains

When Neurons Have Less to Say, They Say it With Particular Emphasis
Researchers discover neurons regulate their own excitability so that the activity level in networks remains as constant as possible

Similar Neuro Outcomes in Preterm Infants with Low-Grade Brain Bleeding as Infants with no Bleeding
A new study from researchers at UH Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital and other centers suggests that preterm infants with a low-grade bleeding in the brain may have similar neurodevelopmental outcomes as infants with no bleeding

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