Number of studies devoted to investigation of neuronal exosomes increases significantly each year. Potential of exosomes as diagnostic markers of neurodegenerative diseases has been examined thoroughly and similar protocols were used to search for the markers of other psychiatric disorders. Biogenesis of exosomes in various types of cells has been studied, physiological role of exosomes has been actively investigated, and many features of their signaling cascades have been clarified. The accumulated data indicate important role of the exosome signaling in interneuronal communication. Do we have enough grounds to recognize exosomes as new non-canonical neurotransmitters in the brain? In this review we discuss this issue and present a concept on the possible role of brain exosomes as a new signaling system to the scientific community.

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