Epilepsy is a chronic disease characterized not only by disturbances in neural activity, but also by significant changes in glial cells. Leading researcher at our institute, Doctor of Biological Sciences. E, Y. Sitnikova, together with colleagues from Istanbul University and Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University (Istanbul, Turkey), published a review where they systematized dysfunction of astrocytes in the development of epilepsy, including epileptogenesis (generation of seizure activity) and ictogenesis (generalization of seizure activity). Special attention is paid to new strategies for targeted therapy of epilepsy aimed at regulating the functions of astrocytic neuroglia: (1) selective impact on neuroglial molecular mechanisms of glutamate transport; (2) modulation of tonic GABA release from astrocytes; (3) modulation of gliotransmission; (4) effects on the astrocytic system Kir4.1-BDNF; (5) modulation of astrocytic Na+/K+/ATPase activity; (6) correction of hypo- or hypermethylation of candidate genes in astrocyte DNA; (7) effects on astrocytic gap junction regulators; (8) effects on astrocytic adenosine kinase (the main enzyme that metabolizes adenosine); and (9) targeting neuroinflammation involving microglia and astrocytes.

Details are outlined in this article, published in July 2023 in the journal Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience.